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第 46 章 Nginx

目录

46.1. Installing
46.1.1. Netkiller OSCM 一键安装 (CentOS 7)
46.1.2. Installing by apt-get under the debain/ubuntu
46.1.3. CentOS
46.1.3.1. spawn-fcgi script
46.1.3.2. php-fpm
46.1.3.3. fastcgi backend
46.1.4. installing by source
46.1.5. CentOS 7
46.1.6. Mac
46.1.6.1. php-fpm
46.1.7. rotate log
46.1.7.1. log shell
46.1.7.2. /etc/logrotate.d/nginx
46.2. Nginx 命令
46.2.1. -V show version and configure options then exit
46.2.2. -t : test configuration and exit
46.2.3. test configuration, dump it and exit
46.3. nginx 配置文件
46.3.1. http 配置
46.3.2. events
46.3.3. gzip
46.3.3.1. CDN支持
46.3.4. server_tokens
46.3.5. ssi
46.3.6. server
46.3.6.1. listen
46.3.6.2. 单域名虚拟主机
46.3.6.3. ssl 虚拟主机
46.3.6.4. server_name 配置
46.3.6.5. root 通过$host智能匹配目录
46.3.6.6. location
46.3.6.7. expires
46.3.6.7.1. 通过 add_header / more_set_headers 设置缓存
46.3.6.7.2. $request_uri
46.3.6.7.3. $request_filename
46.3.6.8. access
46.3.6.9. autoindex
46.3.6.10. try_files
46.3.6.11. add_header
46.3.6.11.1. Cache
46.3.6.11.2. Access-Control-Allow
46.3.7. HTTP2 配置 SSL证书
46.3.7.1. 自颁发证书
46.3.7.2. spdy
46.3.7.3. HTTP2
46.3.7.4. 用户访问 HTTP时强制跳转到 HTTPS
46.3.7.5. SSL 双向认证
46.3.7.5.1. 生成证书
46.3.7.5.1.1. CA
46.3.7.5.1.2. 服务器端
46.3.7.5.1.3. 客户端
46.3.7.5.1.4. 浏览器证书
46.3.7.5.1.5. SOAP 证书
46.3.7.5.1.6. 过程演示
46.3.7.5.2. Nginx 配置
46.3.7.5.3. 测试双向认证
46.3.8. rewrite
46.3.8.1. http get 参数处理
46.3.8.2. 正则取非
46.3.9. upstream 负载均衡
46.3.9.1. weight 权重配置
46.3.9.2. backup 实现热备
46.3.10. fastcgi
46.3.10.1. spawn-fcgi
46.3.10.2. php-fpm
46.3.10.2.1. php5-fpm
46.3.10.2.2. 编译 php-fpm
46.3.10.2.2.1. php-fpm 状态
46.3.10.2.3. fastcgi_pass
46.3.11. return
46.3.12. Nginx 变量
46.3.12.1. $host
46.3.12.2. http_user_agent
46.3.12.2.1. 禁止非浏览器访问
46.3.12.2.2. http_user_agent 没有设置不允许访问
46.3.12.3. http_referer
46.3.12.3.1. valid_referers/invalid_referer
46.3.12.4. request_filename
46.3.12.5. request_uri
46.3.12.6. remote_addr
46.3.12.7. http_cookie
46.3.12.8. request_method
46.3.12.9. limit_except
46.3.12.10. invalid_referer
46.3.12.11. $request_body - HTTP POST 数据
46.3.12.11.1. 用户日志
46.3.12.11.2. $request_body 用于缓存
46.3.12.12. 自定义变量
46.3.12.13. if 条件判断
46.4. Proxy
46.4.1. proxy_cache
46.4.2. rewrite + proxy_pass
46.4.3. request_filename + proxy_pass
46.4.4. $request_uri 与 proxy_pass 联合使用
46.4.5. try_files 与 proxy_pass 共用
46.4.6. Proxy 与 SSI
46.4.7. Host
46.4.8. expires
46.4.9. X-Forwarded-For
46.4.10. X-Sendfile
46.4.11. proxy_http_version
46.4.12. proxy_set_header
46.4.13. timeout 超时时间
46.4.14. example
46.4.14.1. upstream 实例
46.4.14.2. Tomcat 实例
46.4.14.3. Nginx -> Nginx -> Tomcat
46.4.14.4. Proxy 处理 Cookie
46.4.14.5. Proxy 添加 CORS 头
46.4.14.6. 通过 Proxy 汉化 restful 接口
46.5. Nginx module
46.5.1. stub_status
46.5.2. sub_filter 页面中查找和替换
46.5.3. auth_basic
46.5.4. valid_referers
46.5.5. ngx_http_flv_module
46.5.6. ngx_http_mp4_module
46.5.7. limit_zone
46.5.8. image_filter
46.5.9. ngx_stream_proxy_module
46.5.10. limit_except
46.5.11. geoip_country_code
46.6. Example
46.6.1. Nginx + Tomcat
46.6.2. 拦截index.html
46.6.3. Session 的 Cookie 域处理
46.7. FAQ
46.7.1. 405 Not Allowed?
46.7.2. 502 Bad Gateway?
46.7.3. 413 Request Entity Too Large
46.7.4. 502 Bad Gateway?
46.7.5. 499 Client Closed Request
46.7.6. proxy_pass
46.7.7. proxy_pass SESSION 丢失问题
46.7.8. [alert] 55785#0: *11449 socket() failed (24: Too many open files) while connecting to upstream
46.7.9. server_name 与 SSI 注意事项
46.7.10. location 跨 document_root 引用,引用 document_root 之外的资源
46.7.11. nginx: [warn] duplicate MIME type "text/html" in /etc/nginx/nginx.conf

46.1. Installing

46.1.1. Netkiller OSCM 一键安装 (CentOS 7)

# curl -s https://raw.githubusercontent.com/oscm/shell/master/web/nginx/stable/nginx.sh | bash
			

46.1.2. Installing by apt-get under the debain/ubuntu

			
$ sudo apt-get install nginx
			
			
			
sudo /etc/init.d/nginx start
			
			

46.1.3. CentOS

http://nginx.org/packages/centos/$releasever/$basearch/

$releasever 是版本号

$basearch 处理器架构

http://nginx.org/packages/centos/6/x86_64/

			
cat > /etc/yum.repos.d/nginx.repo <<EOF
[nginx]
name=nginx repo
baseurl=http://nginx.org/packages/centos/6/x86_64/
gpgcheck=0
enabled=1
EOF
			
			

i386

			
cat > /etc/yum.repos.d/nginx.repo <<EOF
[nginx]
name=nginx repo
baseurl=http://nginx.org/packages/centos/5/i386/
gpgcheck=0
enabled=1
EOF
			
			
yum search nginx
============================================= Matched: nginx =============================================
nginx.x86_64 : high performance web server

yum install -y nginx
chkconfig nginx on
service nginx start
			

46.1.3.1. spawn-fcgi script

yum -y install spawn-fcgi
				

/etc/sysconfig/spawn-fcgi

移除SOCKET与OPTIONS注释, apache改为nginx

# cat /etc/sysconfig/spawn-fcgi
# You must set some working options before the "spawn-fcgi" service will work.
# If SOCKET points to a file, then this file is cleaned up by the init script.
#
# See spawn-fcgi(1) for all possible options.
#
# Example :
SOCKET=/var/run/php-fcgi.sock
OPTIONS="-u apache -g apache -s $SOCKET -S -M 0600 -C 32 -F 1 -P /var/run/spawn-fcgi.pid -- /usr/bin/php-cgi"
				
				
chkconfig spawn-fcgi on
				
				

starting spawn-fcgi

/etc/init.d/spawn-fcgi start
				

check port

# netstat -nl
Active Internet connections (only servers)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address               Foreign Address             State
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:22                  0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN
tcp        0      0 :::22                       :::*                        LISTEN
Active UNIX domain sockets (only servers)
Proto RefCnt Flags       Type       State         I-Node Path
unix  2      [ ACC ]     STREAM     LISTENING     25282  /var/run/php-fcgi.sock
unix  2      [ ACC ]     STREAM     LISTENING     8227   @/com/ubuntu/upstart
				
				

Unix domain socket

location ~ \.php$ { fastcgi_pass unix:/var/run/php-fcgi.sock; fastcgi_index index.php; fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME /var/www/nginx-default$fastcgi_script_name; include fastcgi_params; }

TCP/IP

/usr/bin/spawn-fcgi -a 127.0.0.1 -p 9000 -u nginx -g nginx -d /www -C 32 -F 1 -P /var/run/spawn-fcgi.pid -f /usr/bin/php-cgi
				

				
        location ~ \.php$ {
            fastcgi_pass   127.0.0.1:9000;
            fastcgi_index  index.php;
            fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME  /var/www/nginx-default$fastcgi_script_name;
            include        fastcgi_params;
        }
				
				
# netstat -tulpn | grep :9000
tcp        0      0 127.0.0.1:9000              0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN      26877/php-cgi
				
chkconfig nginx on
				

check config

nginx -t
				

46.1.3.2. php-fpm

rpm -Uvh http://download.fedora.redhat.com/pub/epel/6/x86_64/epel-release-6-5.noarch.rpm
yum install nginx -y
				

chkconfig nginx on
				

check config

nginx -t
				
yum -y install mysql mysql-server
yum -y install php php-cgi php-mysql php-mbstring php-gd php-fastcgi
yum -y install perl-DBI perl-DBD-MySQL
				

其他 php-fpm YUM源

rpm --import http://rpms.famillecollet.com/RPM-GPG-KEY-remi
rpm -ivh http://rpms.famillecollet.com/enterprise/remi-release-6.rpm
				
# rpm -Uvh http://centos.alt.ru/repository/centos/6/i386/centalt-release-6-1.noarch.rpm
# yum update
				

46.1.3.3. fastcgi backend

				
upstream backend  {
  server   localhost:1234;
}

fastcgi_pass   backend;
				
				

46.1.4. installing by source

			
cd /usr/local/src/
wget http://www.nginx.org/download/nginx-1.0.6.tar.gz

./configure --prefix=/usr/local/server/nginx \
--with-openssl=/usr/include \
--with-pcre=/usr/include/pcre/ \
--with-http_stub_status_module \
--without-http_memcached_module \
--without-http_fastcgi_module \
--without-http_rewrite_module \
--without-http_map_module \
--without-http_geo_module \
--without-http_autoindex_module
			
			

rpm 所使用的编译参数

nginx -V
nginx: nginx version: nginx/1.0.6
nginx: built by gcc 4.4.4 20100726 (Red Hat 4.4.4-13) (GCC)
nginx: TLS SNI support enabled
nginx: configure arguments: --prefix=/etc/nginx/ --sbin-path=/usr/sbin/nginx --conf-path=/etc/nginx/nginx.conf --error-log-path=/var/log/nginx/error.log --http-log-path=/var/log/nginx/access.log --pid-path=/var/run/nginx.pid --lock-path=/var/run/nginx.lock --http-client-body-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/client_temp --http-proxy-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/proxy_temp --http-fastcgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/fastcgi_temp --http-uwsgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/uwcgi_temp --http-scgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/scgi_temp --user=nginx --group=nginx --with-http_ssl_module --with-http_realip_module --with-http_addition_module --with-http_sub_module --with-http_dav_module --with-http_flv_module --with-http_gzip_static_module --with-http_random_index_module --with-http_secure_link_module --with-http_stub_status_module --with-mail --with-mail_ssl_module --with-file-aio --with-ipv6
			
# nginx -V
nginx version: nginx/1.2.3
built by gcc 4.4.4 20100726 (Red Hat 4.4.4-13) (GCC)
TLS SNI support enabled
configure arguments: --prefix=/etc/nginx/ --sbin-path=/usr/sbin/nginx --conf-path=/etc/nginx/nginx.conf --error-log-path=/var/log/nginx/error.log --http-log-path=/var/log/nginx/access.log --pid-path=/var/run/nginx.pid --lock-path=/var/run/nginx.lock --http-client-body-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/client_temp --http-proxy-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/proxy_temp --http-fastcgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/fastcgi_temp --http-uwsgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/uwsgi_temp --http-scgi-temp-path=/var/cache/nginx/scgi_temp --user=nginx --group=nginx --with-http_ssl_module --with-http_realip_module --with-http_addition_module --with-http_sub_module --with-http_dav_module --with-http_flv_module --with-http_mp4_module --with-http_gzip_static_module --with-http_random_index_module --with-http_secure_link_module --with-http_stub_status_module --with-mail --with-mail_ssl_module --with-file-aio --with-ipv6 --with-cc-opt='-O2 -g'
			

46.1.5. CentOS 7

			
#!/bin/bash
rpm -ivh http://nginx.org/packages/centos/7/noarch/RPMS/nginx-release-centos-7-0.el7.ngx.noarch.rpm
yum install -y nginx

cp /etc/nginx/nginx.conf{,.original}

vim /etc/nginx/nginx.conf <<VIM > /dev/null 2>&1
:%s/worker_processes  1;/worker_processes  8;/
:%s/worker_connections  1024;/worker_connections  4096;/
:%s/#gzip/server_tokens off;\r    gzip/
:%s/#gzip/gzip/
:wq
VIM

sed -i '4iworker_rlimit_nofile 65530;' /etc/nginx/nginx.conf

systemctl enable nginx
systemctl start nginx			
			
			

测试配置文件是否正确

# nginx -t
nginx: the configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf syntax is ok
nginx: configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf test is successful			
			

46.1.6. Mac

安装

neo@MacBook-Pro ~ % brew install nginx 			
			

启动

neo@MacBook-Pro ~ % brew services start nginx
==> Successfully started `nginx` (label: homebrew.mxcl.nginx)
			

重启

neo@MacBook-Pro /usr/local/etc/nginx % brew services restart nginx
Stopping `nginx`... (might take a while)
==> Successfully stopped `nginx` (label: homebrew.mxcl.nginx)
==> Successfully started `nginx` (label: homebrew.mxcl.nginx)			
			

配置文件在 /usr/local/etc/nginx 下,默认使用 8080端口

nginx.conf 文件如下

			
#user  nobody;
worker_processes  1;

#error_log  logs/error.log;
#error_log  logs/error.log  notice;
#error_log  logs/error.log  info;

#pid        logs/nginx.pid;


events {
    worker_connections  1024;
}


http {
    include       mime.types;
    default_type  application/octet-stream;

    #log_format  main  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
    #                  '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
    #                  '"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"';

    #access_log  logs/access.log  main;

    sendfile        on;
    #tcp_nopush     on;

    #keepalive_timeout  0;
    keepalive_timeout  65;

    #gzip  on;

    server {
        listen       8080;
        server_name  localhost;

        #charset koi8-r;

        #access_log  logs/host.access.log  main;

        location / {
            root   html;
            index  index.html index.htm;
        }

        #error_page  404              /404.html;

        # redirect server error pages to the static page /50x.html
        #
        error_page   500 502 503 504  /50x.html;
        location = /50x.html {
            root   html;
        }

        # proxy the PHP scripts to Apache listening on 127.0.0.1:80
        #
        #location ~ \.php$ {
        #    proxy_pass   http://127.0.0.1;
        #}

        # pass the PHP scripts to FastCGI server listening on 127.0.0.1:9000
        #
        #location ~ \.php$ {
        #    root           html;
        #    fastcgi_pass   127.0.0.1:9000;
        #    fastcgi_index  index.php;
        #    fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME  /scripts$fastcgi_script_name;
        #    include        fastcgi_params;
        #}

        # deny access to .htaccess files, if Apache's document root
        # concurs with nginx's one
        #
        #location ~ /\.ht {
        #    deny  all;
        #}
    }


    # another virtual host using mix of IP-, name-, and port-based configuration
    #
    #server {
    #    listen       8000;
    #    listen       somename:8080;
    #    server_name  somename  alias  another.alias;

    #    location / {
    #        root   html;
    #        index  index.html index.htm;
    #    }
    #}


    # HTTPS server
    #
    #server {
    #    listen       443 ssl;
    #    server_name  localhost;

    #    ssl_certificate      cert.pem;
    #    ssl_certificate_key  cert.key;

    #    ssl_session_cache    shared:SSL:1m;
    #    ssl_session_timeout  5m;

    #    ssl_ciphers  HIGH:!aNULL:!MD5;
    #    ssl_prefer_server_ciphers  on;

    #    location / {
    #        root   html;
    #        index  index.html index.htm;
    #    }
    #}
    include servers/*;
}

			
			

46.1.6.1. php-fpm

mac下自带的软件

neo@MacBook-Pro ~ % php -v
PHP 5.6.30 (cli) (built: Feb  7 2017 16:18:37) 
Copyright (c) 1997-2016 The PHP Group
Zend Engine v2.6.0, Copyright (c) 1998-2016 Zend Technologies
				

启动php-fpm方法如下

cd /private/etc
sudo cp php-fpm.conf.default php-fpm.conf
				

修改error_log项, 改为error_log = /usr/local/var/log/php-fpm.log

启动 php-fpm

php-fpm
				

46.1.7. rotate log

46.1.7.1. log shell

一些特别的情况下需要切割日志,请参考下面的例子

				
# cat /srv/bin/rotatelog.sh

#!/bin/bash
# run this script at 0:00

#Nginx Log Path
log_dir="/var/log/nginx"
date_dir=`date +%Y/%m/%d/%H`

mkdir -p ${log_dir}/${date_dir} > /dev/null 2>&1
mv ${log_dir}/access.log ${log_dir}/${date_dir}/access.log
mv ${log_dir}/error.log ${log_dir}/${date_dir}/error.log

kill -USR1 `cat /var/run/nginx.pid`

gzip ${log_dir}/${date_dir}/access.log &
gzip ${log_dir}/${date_dir}/error.log &
				
				

46.1.7.2. /etc/logrotate.d/nginx

如果是非源码安装,一般情况nginx都会自带日志切割处理配置文件。

				
# cat /etc/logrotate.d/nginx
/var/log/nginx/*.log {
        daily
        missingok
        rotate 52
        compress
        delaycompress
        notifempty
        create 640 root adm
        sharedscripts
        postrotate
                [ -f /var/run/nginx.pid ] && kill -USR1 `cat /var/run/nginx.pid`
        endscript
}