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28.5. CURL - transfer a URL

28.5.1. 基本用法

curl http://www.google.com/
		

28.5.2. data

post 表单数据

		
curl -d "user=neo&password=chen" http://www.example.com/login.php
curl --data "user=neo&password=chen" http://www.example.com/login.php

curl  -F "upload=@card.txt;type=text/plain"  "http://www.example.com/upload.php"
		
		

28.5.3. connect-timeout

curl -o /dev/null --connect-timeout 30 -m 30 -s -w %{http_code} http://www.google.com/
		

28.5.4. max-time

-m, --max-time SECONDS Maximum time allowed for the transfer

curl -o /dev/null --max-time 10 http://www.netkiller.cn/
		

28.5.5. compressed

--compressed Request compressed response (using deflate or gzip)

curl --compressed http://www.example.com
		

28.5.6. vhosts

有时候你需要设觉察/etc/hosts文件才能访问vhost,下面例子可以不设置/etc/hosts

curl -x 127.0.0.1:80 your.exmaple.com/index.php
		

28.5.7. 输出格式定义

计时器				描述
time_connect		建立到服务器的 TCP 连接所用的时间
time_starttransfer	在发出请求之后,Web 服务器返回数据的第一个字节所用的时间
time_total			完成请求所用的时间
time_namelookup		DNS解析时间,从请求开始到DNS解析完毕所用时间(记得关掉 Linux 的 nscd 的服务测试)
speed_download		下载速度,单位-字节每秒。
		
curl -o /dev/null -s -w %{time_connect}:%{time_starttransfer}:%{time_total} http://www.example.net
		

测试页面所花费的时间

date ; curl  -s  -w 'Connect: %{time_connect} TTFB: %{time_starttransfer} Total time: %{time_total} \n'  -H "Host: www.example.com" http://172.16.0.1/webapp/test.jsp ; date ;
		
curl -o /dev/null -s -w %{time_connect}, %{time_starttransfer}, %{time_total}, %{time_namelookup}, %{speed_download} http://www.netkiller.cn
		

返回HTTP状态码

curl -s -I http://netkiller.sourceforge.net/ | grep HTTP | awk '{print $2" "$3}'
curl -o /dev/null -s -w %{http_code} http://netkiller.sourceforge.net/

curl --connect-timeout 5 --max-time 60 --output /dev/null -s -w %{response_code} http://www.netkiller.cn/
		
# curl -w '\nLookup time:\t%{time_namelookup}\nConnect time:\t%{time_connect}\nPreXfer time:\t%{time_pretransfer}\nStartXfer time:\t%{time_starttransfer}\n\nTotal time:\t%{time_total}\n' -o /dev/null -s http://www.netkiller.cn

Lookup time:	0.125
Connect time:	0.125
PreXfer time:	0.125
StartXfer time:	0.125

Total time:	0.126		
		

28.5.8. -A/--user-agent <agent string>

设置用户代理,这样web服务器会认为是其他浏览器访问

curl -A "Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 5.01; Windows NT 5.0)" http://www.example.com
		

28.5.9. referer

		
curl -v -o /dev/null -e "http://www.example.com" http://www.your.com/
* About to connect() to www.your.com port 80
*   Trying 172.16.1.10... connected
* Connected to www.your.com (172.16.1.10) port 80
> GET / HTTP/1.1
> User-Agent: curl/7.15.5 (x86_64-redhat-linux-gnu) libcurl/7.15.5 OpenSSL/0.9.8b zlib/1.2.3 libidn/0.6.5
> Host: www.your.com
> Accept: */*
> Referer: http://www.example.com
>
< HTTP/1.1 200 OK
< Date: Thu, 30 Sep 2010 07:59:47 GMT
< Server: Apache/2.2.16 (Unix) mod_ssl/2.2.16 OpenSSL/0.9.8e-fips-rhel5 PHP/5.2.14
< Accept-Ranges: bytes
< Transfer-Encoding: chunked
< Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8
  % Total    % Received % Xferd  Average Speed   Time    Time     Time  Current
                                 Dload  Upload   Total   Spent    Left  Speed
100  172k    0  172k    0     0  10.2M      0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:-- 11.9M* Connection #0 to host www.your.com left intact

* Closing connection #0
		
		

28.5.10. -v


		

28.5.11. -o, --output FILE Write output to <file> instead of stdout

curl -o /dev/null http://www.example.com
curl -o index.html http://www.example.com
		

28.5.12. -H/--header <line> Custom header to pass to server (H)

28.5.12.1. Last-Modified / If-Modified-Since

If-Modified-Since

neo@neo-OptiPlex-780:/tmp$ curl -I http://images.example.com/test/test.html
HTTP/1.0 200 OK
Cache-Control: s-maxage=7200, max-age=900
Expires: Mon, 16 May 2011 08:10:37 GMT
Content-Type: text/html
Accept-Ranges: bytes
ETag: "1205579110"
Last-Modified: Mon, 16 May 2011 06:57:39 GMT
Content-Length: 11
Date: Mon, 16 May 2011 07:55:37 GMT
Server: lighttpd/1.4.26
Age: 604
X-Via: 1.0 ls71:80 (Cdn Cache Server V2.0), 1.0 lydx136:8105 (Cdn Cache Server V2.0)
Connection: keep-alive

neo@neo-OptiPlex-780:/tmp$ curl -H "If-Modified-Since: Fri, 12 May 2011 18:53:33 GMT"  -I http://images.example.com/test/test.html
HTTP/1.0 304 Not Modified
Date: Mon, 16 May 2011 07:56:19 GMT
Content-Type: text/html
Expires: Mon, 16 May 2011 08:11:19 GMT
Last-Modified: Mon, 16 May 2011 06:57:39 GMT
ETag: "1205579110"
Cache-Control: s-maxage=7200, max-age=900
Age: 790
X-Via: 1.0 wzdx168:8080 (Cdn Cache Server V2.0)
Connection: keep-alive
			

28.5.12.2. ETag / If-None-Match

neo@neo-OptiPlex-780:/tmp$ curl -I http://images.example.com/test/test.html
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Cache-Control: s-maxage=7200, max-age=900
Expires: Mon, 16 May 2011 09:48:45 GMT
Content-Type: text/html
Accept-Ranges: bytes
ETag: "1984705864"
Last-Modified: Mon, 16 May 2011 09:01:07 GMT
Content-Length: 22
Date: Mon, 16 May 2011 09:33:45 GMT
Server: lighttpd/1.4.26
			
neo@neo-OptiPlex-780:/tmp$ curl -H 'If-None-Match: "1984705864"' -I http://images.example.com/test/test.html
HTTP/1.1 304 Not Modified
Cache-Control: s-maxage=7200, max-age=900
Expires: Mon, 16 May 2011 09:48:32 GMT
Content-Type: text/html
Accept-Ranges: bytes
ETag: "1984705864"
Last-Modified: Mon, 16 May 2011 09:01:07 GMT
Date: Mon, 16 May 2011 09:33:32 GMT
Server: lighttpd/1.4.26
			

28.5.12.3. Accept-Encoding:gzip,defalte

$ curl -H Accept-Encoding:gzip,defalte -I http://www.example.com/product/374218.html
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Mon, 16 May 2011 09:13:18 GMT
Server: Apache
Accept-Ranges: bytes
Content-Encoding: gzip
Content-Length: 16660
Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8
X-Pad: avoid browser bug
Age: 97
X-Via: 1.1 dg44:8888 (Cdn Cache Server V2.0)
Connection: keep-alive
			

$ curl -H Accept-Encoding:gzip,defalte http://www.example.com/product/374218.html | gunzip
			

28.5.12.4. HOST

curl -H HOST:www.example.com -I http://172.16.1.10/product/374218.html
			

28.5.12.5. HTTP 认证

未认证返回401

			
# curl --compressed http://webservice.example.com/members
<html>
<head><title>401 Authorization Required</title></head>
<body bgcolor="white">
<center><h1>401 Authorization Required</h1></center>
<hr><center>nginx</center>
</body>
</html>
			
			

-u/--user <user[:password]> Set server user and password

使用 -u或者 --user 指定用户与密码

# curl --compressed -uneo:chen http://webservice.example.com/members
			

28.5.13. curl-config

curl-config --features
		

28.5.14. RestFul 应用 JSON 数据处理

下面提供一些使用 curl 操作 restful 的实例

GET 操作

curl http://api.netkiller.cn/v1/withdraw/get/15.json
		

用户认证的情况

curl http://test:123456@api.netkiller.cn/v1/withdraw/get/id/815.json		
		

POST 操作

		
curl -i -H "Accept: application/json" -H "Content-Type: application/json" -X POST -d '
{
"id":"B040200000000000000","name":"Neo","amount":12,"password":"12345","createdate":"2016-09-12 13:10:10"

}' https://test:123456@api.netkiller.cn/v1/withdraw/create.json
		
		

28.5.15. FAQ

Error in TLS handshake, trying SSLv3...

解决方案

curl -v --cipher rsa_rc4_128_sha https://www.mpaymall.com/MPay/MerchantPay.do