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142.2. PAM 插件认证

配置文件

ls  /etc/pam.d/
chfn         crond                login    passwd            remote    runuser-l          smtp          ssh-keycat  sudo-i       system-auth-ac
chsh         fingerprint-auth     newrole  password-auth     run_init  smartcard-auth     smtp.postfix  su          su-l
config-util  fingerprint-auth-ac  other    password-auth-ac  runuser   smartcard-auth-ac  sshd          sudo        system-auth
		

认证插件

ls /lib64/security/
		

142.2.1. pam_tally2.so

此模块的功能是,登陆错误输入密码3次,5分钟后自动解禁,在未解禁期间输入正确密码也无法登陆。

在配置文件 /etc/pam.d/sshd 顶端加入

auth required pam_tally2.so deny=3 onerr=fail unlock_time=300
			

查看失败次数

# pam_tally2
Login           Failures Latest failure     From
root               14    07/12/13 15:44:37  192.168.6.2
neo                 8    07/12/13 15:45:36  192.168.6.2
			

重置计数器

# pam_tally2 -r -u root
Login           Failures Latest failure     From
root               14    07/12/13 15:44:37  192.168.6.2

# pam_tally2 -r -u neo
Login           Failures Latest failure     From
neo                 8    07/12/13 15:45:36  192.168.6.2
			

pam_tally2 计数器日志保存在 /var/log/tallylog 注意,这是二进制格式的文件

例 142.1. /etc/pam.d/sshd - pam_tally2.so

# cat  /etc/pam.d/sshd
#%PAM-1.0
auth required pam_tally2.so deny=3 onerr=fail unlock_time=300

auth	   required	pam_sepermit.so
auth       include      password-auth
account    required     pam_nologin.so
account    include      password-auth
password   include      password-auth
# pam_selinux.so close should be the first session rule
session    required     pam_selinux.so close
session    required     pam_loginuid.so
# pam_selinux.so open should only be followed by sessions to be executed in the user context
session    required     pam_selinux.so open env_params
session    optional     pam_keyinit.so force revoke
session    include      password-auth
				

以上配置root用户不受限制, 如果需要限制root用户,参考下面

auth required pam_tally2.so deny=3 unlock_time=5 even_deny_root root_unlock_time=1800
			

142.2.2. pam_listfile.so

用户登陆限制

将下面一行添加到 /etc/pam.d/sshd 中,这里采用白名单方式,你也可以采用黑名单方式

auth       required     pam_listfile.so item=user sense=allow file=/etc/ssh/whitelist onerr=fail
			

将允许登陆的用户添加到 /etc/ssh/whitelist,除此之外的用户将不能通过ssh登陆到你的系统

# cat /etc/ssh/whitelist
neo
www
			

例 142.2. /etc/pam.d/sshd - pam_listfile.so

# cat /etc/pam.d/sshd
#%PAM-1.0
auth       required     pam_listfile.so item=user sense=allow file=/etc/ssh/whitelist onerr=fail
auth       required     pam_tally2.so deny=3 onerr=fail unlock_time=300

auth	   required	pam_sepermit.so
auth       include      password-auth
account    required     pam_nologin.so
account    include      password-auth
password   include      password-auth
# pam_selinux.so close should be the first session rule
session    required     pam_selinux.so close
session    required     pam_loginuid.so
# pam_selinux.so open should only be followed by sessions to be executed in the user context
session    required     pam_selinux.so open env_params
session    optional     pam_keyinit.so force revoke
session    include      password-auth
				

sense=allow 白名单方式, sense=deny 黑名单方式

auth       required     pam_listfile.so item=user sense=deny file=/etc/ssh/blacklist onerr=fail
			

更多细节请查看手册 $ man pam_listfile

142.2.3. pam_access.so

编辑 /etc/pam.d/sshd 文件,加入下面一行

account required pam_access.so
			

保存后重启sshd进程

编辑 /etc/security/access.conf 文件

			
cat >>  /etc/security/access.conf << EOF

- : root : ALL EXCEPT 192.168.6.1
EOF
			
			

只能通过 192.168.6.1 登陆, 添加多个IP地址

- : root : ALL EXCEPT 192.168.6.1 192.168.6.2
			

测试是否生效

142.2.4. pam_wheel.so

限制普通用户通过su命令提升权限至root. 只有属于wheel组的用户允许通过su切换到root用户

编辑 /etc/pam.d/su 文件,去掉下面的注释

auth		required	pam_wheel.so use_uid
			

修改用户组别,添加到wheel组

# usermod -G wheel www

# id www
uid=501(www) gid=501(www) groups=501(www),10(wheel)
			

没有加入到wheel组的用户使用su时会提示密码不正确。

$ su - root
Password:
su: incorrect password