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Netkiller Linux Basics 手札

Debian Family(Ubuntu) Handbook

Mr. Neo Chan, 陈景峰(BG7NYT)


中国广东省深圳市龙华新区民治街道溪山美地
518131
+86 13113668890
+86 755 29812080

版权声明

转载请与作者联系,转载时请务必标明文章原始出处和作者信息及本声明。

文档出处:
http://netkiller.github.io
http://netkiller.sourceforge.net

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内容摘要

[注意]对初学Linux的爱好者忠告

玩Linux最忌reboot(重新启动)这是windows玩家坏习惯

Linux只要接上电源你就不要再想用reboot,shutdown,halt,poweroff命令,Linux系统和应用软件一般备有reload,reconfigure,restart/start/stop...不需要安装软件或配置服务器后使用reboot重新引导计算机

在Linux系统里SIGHUP信号被定义为刷新配置文件,有些程序没有提供reload参数,你可以给进程发送HUP信号,让它刷新配置文件,而不用restart.通过pkill,killall,kill 都可以发送HUP信号例如: pkill -HUP httpd

[提示]对Linux高级玩家的忠告

其实升级Linux内核也无需reboot(重新启动)目前Linux已经具被改特性,这之前只有小型机才有的特性

内容摘要

本文档讲述Linux系统涵盖了系统管理与配置包括:

[注意]对初学Linux的爱好者忠告

玩Linux最忌reboot(重新启动)这是windows玩家坏习惯

Linux只要接上电源你就不要再想用reboot,shutdown,halt,poweroff命令,Linux系统和应用软件一般备有reload,reconfigure,restart/start/stop...不需要安装软件或配置服务器后使用reboot重新引导计算机

在Linux系统里SIGHUP信号被定义为刷新配置文件,有些程序没有提供reload参数,你可以给进程发送HUP信号,让它刷新配置文件,而不用restart.通过pkill,killall,kill 都可以发送HUP信号例如: pkill -HUP httpd

我的系列文档:

操作系统

Netkiller Linux 手札 Netkiller FreeBSD 手札 Netkiller Shell 手札 Netkiller Security 手札 Netkiller Web 手札 Netkiller Monitoring 手札 Netkiller Storage 手札 Netkiller Mail 手札

数据库

Netkiller Database 手札 Netkiller PostgreSQL 手札 Netkiller MySQL 手札 Netkiller NoSQL 手札 Netkiller LDAP 手札  

以下文档停止更新合并到 《Netkiller Linux 手札》

Netkiller Debian 手札 Netkiller CentOS 手札 Netkiller Multimedia 手札    

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目录

1. 自述
1.1. 系列文档
1.2. 作者简介
1.3. 写给读者
1. 获取系统信息
1.1. Distribution information
1.2. System Infomation
1.2.1. Cpu Bit
1.3. shutdown
1.4. Profile
1.4.1. shell
2. Kernel
2.1. 编译安装内核
2.2. sysctl - configure kernel parameters at runtime
2.2.1. sysctl.d
2.2.2. vm.overcommit_memory
2.3. /sys
2.3.1. /sys/class/net/
2.4. /proc
2.4.1. 进程内存监控
2.4.2. ulimit 状态
3. Kernel modules
3.1. modprobe - program to add and remove modules from the Linux Kernel
4. Package Management
4.1. apt-cache
4.1.1. search
4.1.2. depends
4.1.3. policy
4.2. Apt-Get
4.2.1. Search
4.2.2. Installation
4.2.3. Update
4.2.4. Remove
4.3. aptitude
4.4. Automatic Updates
4.4.1. 升级过程中链接中断怎么办?
4.5. dpkg
4.5.1. -i|--install 安装.deb包
4.5.2. -r|--remove 卸载.deb包
4.5.3. -L|--listfiles <package> ... List files `owned' by package(s). 列出包中的文件
4.5.4. -l|--list [<pattern> ...] List packages concisely. 列出.deb包
4.5.5. Status
4.5.6. dpkg-deb - Debian package archive (.deb) manipulation tool
4.5.6.1. -X, --vextract archive directory Extract and display the filenames contained by a package
4.5.6.2. -e, --control archive [directory] Extracts the control information files from a package archive into the specified directory.
4.5.6.3. -b, --build directory [archive|directory]
4.5.7. dpkg-reconfigure
4.6. Upgrading
4.6.1. GUI
4.6.2. CLI
4.6.3. CDROM
4.7. 制作.deb安装包
4.7.1. checkinstall — Track installation of local software, and produce a binary manageable with your package management software.
4.7.2. dh_make - prepare Debian packaging for an original source archive
4.7.3. control
5. Package Manager
5.1. Yum Resource & Yum Mirror
5.1.1. Fedora resource
5.1.1.1. Fedora 5.4
5.1.1.2. Fedora 6.x
5.1.1.3. Fedora 7.x
5.1.2. rpmforge-release
5.1.2.1. CentOS 5.x
5.1.2.2. CentOS 6.x
5.1.2.3. CentALT
5.1.3. atomic
5.1.4. famillecollet
5.1.5. rpmfind.net
5.1.6. pkgs.org
5.1.7. China Resource
5.1.8. 制作本地共享源
5.2. yum - Yellowdog Updater Modified
5.2.1. install
5.2.2. localinstall
5.2.3. list
5.2.4. search
5.2.5. update / upgrade
5.2.6. remove
5.2.7. installed
5.2.8. group
5.2.8.1. grouplist
5.2.8.2. groupinfo
5.2.8.3. groupinstall
5.2.8.4. groupremove
5.2.9. 查看包的依赖关系
5.2.10. provides / whatprovides
5.2.11. YUM 源管理
5.3. rpm - RPM Package Manager
5.3.1. install/upgrade/remove
5.3.1.1. --prefix
5.3.2. query
5.3.2.1. changelog 查看变更日志
5.4. rpmbuild - Build RPM Package(s)
5.4.1. RPM_directory_macros
5.4.2. --define 专递模板变量
5.4.3.
5.4.4. FAQ
6. Device information
6.1. dmesg - print or control the kernel ring buffer
6.2. smartctl - Control and Monitor Utility for SMART Disks
6.3. CPU 资源管理
6.3.1. lscpu - display information about the CPU architecture
6.3.2. chcpu - configure CPUs
6.4. lspci - list all PCI devices
6.5. lshw - list hardware
6.5.1. only show a certain class of hardware
6.6. hwinfo - Hardware Information
6.7. dmidecode - DMI table decoder
6.8. ethtool - Display or change ethernet card settings
6.9. usb device
6.10. lsscsi - list SCSI devices (or hosts) and their attributes
6.11. HBA
6.12. lsblk - list block devices
6.13. kudzu - detects and configures new and/or changed hardware on a system
6.14. udev - Linux dynamic device management
7. 区域/语言/时间
7.1. Ubuntu
7.1.1. time zone
7.1.2. to change system date/time
7.1.2.1. NTP Server
7.1.3. Language
7.2. CentOS 区域设置
7.2.1. 时区设置 CentOS 6
7.2.1.1. 查看当前时区 /etc/sysconfig/clock
7.2.1.2. tzselect - select a timezone
7.2.1.3. 时区设置 CentOS 7
7.2.1.4. 修改时区并立即生效
7.2.2. 日期、时间
7.2.2.1. rdate - get the time via the network
7.2.3. 语言
8. console / terminal
8.1. serial console
8.2. console timeout
8.3. TUI (Text User Interface)
8.4. framebuffer
9. Harddisk
9.1. 查看分区分区 UUID
9.2. Label
9.2.1. Ext2
9.2.1.1. 查看卷标
9.2.1.2. 更改卷标
9.3. swap 交换分区
9.3.1. swapon failed: Invalid argument
9.4. Show partition
9.5. Create partition
9.6. Clone partition
9.7. estimate disk / directory / file space usage
9.8. Convert from ext3 to ext4 File system
9.9. GPT
9.9.1. 设置GTP磁盘
9.9.2. 查看分区
9.9.3. 创建分区
9.9.4. 删除分区
9.9.5. 退出
9.9.6. mount
9.10. loop devices
9.10.1. losetup - set up and control loop devices
10. Removable Storage
10.1. usb flash
10.2. CD / DVD
10.2.1. Mount an ISO file
10.2.2. create iso file from CD
10.2.3. burner
10.2.4. ISO Mirror
11. File System
11.1. /etc/fstab
11.1.1. /etc/fstab 例子
11.2. Mount partition
11.2.1. Mount
11.2.2. Umount
11.2.3. bind directory
11.3. ext2
11.4. ext3
11.5. ReiserFS
11.6. EXT4
11.6.1. install
11.6.2. format
11.6.3. label
11.6.4. mount/umount
11.6.5. LVM 卷
11.7. LVM
11.8. btrfs
11.8.1. Mount Btrfs
11.8.1.1. Mount Snap
11.8.1.2. fstab
11.8.2. Snapshots and subvolumes (快照与子卷管理)
11.8.2.1. subvolumes
11.8.2.2.
11.8.3. btrfsctl
11.8.3.1. Resizes the filesystem
11.8.3.2. Snapshot
11.8.4. btrfs-vol
11.8.5. btrfs-convert
11.8.6. btrfsck
11.8.7. btrfs-debug-tree
11.9. zfs
11.10. iSCSI
11.10.1. GFS
11.11. GFS - Cluster Storage
11.12. glusterfs
11.13. RAM FS
11.14. tmpfs
11.15. ftp fs
11.16. SSHFS (sshfs - filesystem client based on SSH File Transfer Protocol)
11.17. davfs2 - mount a WebDAV resource as a regular file system
11.18. redisfs
11.19. File system test
11.19.1. ext4 vs btrfs
11.19.2. xfs vs jfs vs reiserfs
11.19.3. RAID10 (146G*8) vs EMC VNX 5300 (8G Fibre Channel)
11.19.4. Dell 2950(RAID5 500G SATA * 6) vs MD1200
11.20. 磁盘占用100%删除文件后不是放的解决方法
13. Networking
13.1. hosts
13.1.1. hostnamectl - Control the system hostname
13.1.2. /etc/hostname
13.1.3. /etc/host.conf
13.1.4. /etc/hosts
13.1.5. hosts.allow / hosts.deny
13.1.6. /etc/resolv.conf
13.2. Hostname
13.3. Network adapter
13.3.1. 接口名称
13.4. Ethernet Interfaces
13.4.1. ifquery
13.4.2. DHCP
13.4.3. Static IP
13.5. Mask
13.6. Gateway
13.7. Configuring Name Server Lookups
13.8. IP forwarding(IP转发)
13.9. bonding
13.9.1. Ubuntu
13.10. Finding optimal MTU
13.11. wireless
13.11.1. rfkill - tool for enabling and disabling wireless devices
13.11.2. iwlist - Get more detailed wireless information from a wireless interface
13.11.3. iwconfig - configure a wireless network interface
13.11.4. /proc/net/wireless
13.12. CentOS 网络配置
13.12.1. Gateway
13.12.2. bonding
13.12.3. brctl
13.12.4. nmtui
15. Logging
15.1. rsyslog
15.1.1. rsyslog.conf
15.2. logrotate - rotates, compresses, and mails system logs
15.2.1. /etc/logrotate.conf
15.2.2. /etc/logrotate.d/
15.2.2.1. 日志配置
15.2.2.2. create 创建日志文件,指定用于与访问权限
15.2.2.3. postrotate
15.3. syslog-ng
15.4. syslog, klogctl - read and/or clear kernel message ring buffer; set console_loglevel
15.4.1. /etc/sysconfig/syslog
15.4.2. /etc/syslog.conf
15.4.3. logger
15.4.4. To Log Messages Over UDP Network
16. 设备管理
16.1. Debian/Ubuntu
16.1.1. update-rc.d - install and remove System-V style init script links
16.1.2. invoke-rc.d - executes System-V style init script actions
16.1.3. runlevel
16.1.4. sysv-rc-conf
16.1.5. xinetd - replacement for inetd with many enhancements
16.1.5.1. tftpd
16.1.6. Scheduled Tasks
16.1.6.1. crontab - maintain crontab files for individual users
16.1.6.2. at, batch, atq, atrm - queue, examine or delete jobs for later execution
16.1.7. sv - control and manage services monitored by runsv
16.1.7.1. runsv
16.1.7.2. runsvdir
16.2. Services
16.2.1. systemctl
16.2.1.1. is-enabled 查看当前服务的启用状态
16.2.1.2. 重载 systemd
16.2.1.3. 列出启动失败的服务
16.2.1.4. list-units
16.2.2. service
16.2.2.1. chkconfig
16.2.3. xinetd.d
16.2.3.1. tftpd
16.2.3.2. rsync
16.2.3.3. rshd
16.2.4. rpcinfo
16.2.5. SELINUX
17. Process
17.1. top - display Linux tasks
17.2. ps - report a snapshot of the current processes
17.2.1. ps axef
17.2.2. ps -eo pid,cmd
17.2.3. ps jax
17.2.4. zombie process
17.3. mpstat
17.4. pstree - display a tree of processes
17.5. pid
17.5.1. pgrep, pkill - look up or signal processes based on name and other attributes
17.5.2. pidof -- find the process ID of a running program.
17.6. jobs
17.6.1. &
17.6.2. Ctrl + Z
17.6.3. jobs
17.6.4. fg / bg
17.6.5. nohup - run a command immune to hangups, with output to a non-tty
17.7. ionice - get/set program io scheduling class and priority
17.8. /proc 目录与进程的关系
17.8.1. /proc/*/fd/ 进程所打开的文件
18. Permission
18.1. User
18.1.1. Add a new user
18.1.2. remove an existed user
18.1.3. usermod - modify a user account
18.1.4. lock / unlock
18.1.4.1. /etc/passwd
18.2. Group
18.2.1. Add a new group
18.2.2. Add a user to the group
18.2.3. /etc/group
18.3. umask
18.4. Access Permissions
18.4.1. chown - change file owner and group
18.4.2. chgrp - change group ownership
18.4.3. chmod - change file access permissions
18.5. chattr - change file attributes on a Linux second extended file system
18.6. su - run a shell with substitute user and group IDs
18.7. runuser - run a command with substitute user and group ID
18.8. sudo, sudoedit - execute a command as another user
18.8.1. NOPASSWD
18.8.2. 允许或禁止命令
18.8.3. Cmnd_Alias 用法
18.8.4. wheel 组
18.9. ACL - Access Control List
18.9.1. getfacl - get file access control lists
18.9.2. setfacl - set file access control lists
18.9.2.1. set
18.9.2.2. default
18.9.2.3. remove
18.9.2.4. backup and restore
19. /etc
19.1. /etc/inputrc
19.2. /etc/shells
20. kickstart
20.1. install kickstart
20.2. ks.cfg
20.3. boot 参数
21. System Utilities 配置工具
21.1. CentOS 6
21.1.1. system-config-date
21.1.2. system-config-firewall
21.1.3. system-config-securitylevel
21.1.4. system-config-language
21.1.5. system-config-keyboard
21.1.6. system-config-network
21.1.7. ntsysv
21.1.8. lokkit
21.1.9. system-config-kdump
21.1.10. system-config-services
21.1.11. authconfig-tui
22. Bash Shell
22.1. bash - GNU Bourne-Again SHell
22.1.1. -n 检查脚本是否有语法错误
22.1.2. -x 显示详细运行过程
22.2. Introduction
22.2.1. chsh - change login shell
22.2.2. test 命令
22.2.3. I/O 重定向
22.2.3.1. error 重定向
22.2.3.2. 使用块记录日志
22.2.3.3. tee - read from standard input and write to standard output and files
22.2.3.4. 创建文件
22.2.3.5. 快速清空一个文件的内容
22.2.4. pipes (FIFOs)
22.2.5. mktemp - create a temporary file or directory 临时目录与文件
22.2.6. History 命令历史记录
22.2.6.1. .bash_history
22.2.6.2. .mysql_history
22.2.7. hash - hash database access method
22.2.8. prompt
22.3. variable
22.3.1. 系统变量
22.3.1.1. 命令行参数传递
22.3.1.2.
22.3.1.3.
22.3.2. 表达式
22.3.3. Internal Environment Variables
22.3.4. set 设置变量
22.3.5. unset 变量销毁
22.3.6. 设置变量默认值
22.3.7. export 设置全局变量
22.3.8. declare
22.3.9. Numerical 数值运算
22.3.10. Strings 字符串操作
22.3.10.1. ##/#
22.3.10.2. %%/%
22.3.10.3. :n1:n2
22.3.10.4. #
22.3.10.5. example
22.3.10.6. 计算字符串长度
22.3.10.7. 字符串查找替换
22.3.11. Array 数组
22.3.11.1. for 与 array
22.3.11.2. while 与 array
22.3.11.3. array 与 read
22.3.11.4. 拆分字符串并转换为数组
22.3.11.5. 数组转为字符串
22.3.12. read 赋值多个变量
22.3.13. eval
22.4. conditions if and case
22.4.1. if
22.4.2. case
22.5. Loops for, while and until
22.5.1. for
22.5.2. while
22.5.3. until
22.6. Functions
22.6.1. Local variables
22.7. User interfaces
22.7.1. input
22.8. Example
22.8.1. 有趣的Shell
22.8.2. backup
22.8.3. CPU 核心数
22.8.4. Password
22.8.5. processes
22.8.5.1. pid
22.8.5.2. kill
22.8.5.3. pgrep
22.8.6. Shell 技巧
22.8.6.1. 行转列,再批评
22.8.6.2. for vs while
22.8.6.3. 遍历字符串
22.8.7. to convert utf-8 from gb2312 code
22.8.8. 使用内存的百分比
22.8.9. 合并apache被cronlog分割的log文件
23. Z Shell
23.1. installing Z shell
23.2. Starting file
23.2.1. ~/.zshrc
23.3. Prompting
23.4. Aliases
23.5. History
23.6. FAQ
23.6.1. Home/End key
24. Shell command
24.1. Help Commands
24.1.1. man - an interface to the on-line reference manuals
24.1.1.1. manpath.config
24.1.1.2. 查看man手册位置
24.1.1.3. 指定手册位置
24.2. getconf - Query system configuration variables
24.3. Directory and File System Related
24.3.1. dirname
24.3.2. filename
24.3.2.1. 排除扩展名
24.3.2.2. 取扩展名
24.3.3. test - check file types and compare values
24.3.4. stat
24.3.5. mkdir - make directories
24.3.6. rename
24.3.7. touch
24.3.8. ls - list directory contents
24.3.8.1. full-time / time-style 定义日期时间格式
24.3.9. cp - copy files and directories
24.3.9.1. copy directories recursively
24.3.9.2. overwrite an existing file
24.3.9.3. -a, --archive same as -dR --preserve=all
24.3.10. rm - remove files or directories
24.3.10.1. -bash: /bin/rm: Argument list too long
24.3.10.2. zsh: sure you want to delete all the files in /tmp [yn]?
24.3.11. df - report file system disk space usage
24.3.12. du - estimate file space usage
24.3.13. tac - concatenate and print files in reverse
24.3.14. split - split a file into pieces
24.3.14.1. 按行分割文件
24.3.14.2. 按尺寸分割文件
24.3.15. find - search for files in a directory hierarchy
24.3.15.1. name
24.3.15.2. regex
24.3.15.3. user
24.3.15.4. perm
24.3.15.5. type
24.3.15.6. -delete
24.3.15.7. exec
24.3.15.8. xargs
24.3.15.9. 排除目录
24.3.15.10. -mmin n File's data was last modified n minutes ago.
24.3.15.11. -mtime / -mmin
24.3.15.12. --newer
24.3.15.13. -print / -printf
24.3.15.14. -size
24.4. package / compress and decompress
24.4.1. tar — The GNU version of the tar archiving utility
24.4.1.1. tar examples
24.4.1.2. gunzip
24.4.1.3. b2zip
24.4.1.4. compress
24.4.1.5. -t, --list
24.4.1.6. tar: Removing leading `/’ from member names
24.4.1.7. -C, --directory=DIR
24.4.1.8. -P, --absolute-names don't strip leading `/'s from file names
24.4.1.9. --exclude
24.4.1.10. -T
24.4.1.11. 日期过滤
24.4.1.12. 保留权限
24.4.1.13. -r, --append
24.4.1.14. 远程传输
24.4.1.15. 分卷压缩
24.4.2. cpio - copy files to and from archives
24.4.3. gzip
24.4.4. zip, zipcloak, zipnote, zipsplit - package and compress (archive) files
24.4.5. RAR
24.4.6. 7-Zip
24.4.6.1. 压缩
24.4.6.2. 浏览压缩包
24.4.6.3. 解压
24.4.6.4. Creates self extracting archive.
24.5. date and time
24.5.1. 日期格式
24.5.2. -d --date=
24.5.2.1. 日期偏移量
24.5.2.2. 时间偏移
24.5.3. weekday name
24.5.4. UTC
24.6. Numeric
24.6.1. 数值运算
24.6.2. seq - print a sequence of numbers
24.6.3. bc - An arbitrary precision calculator language
24.7. Text Processing
24.7.1. iconv - Convert encoding of given files from one encoding to another
24.7.1.1. cconv - A iconv based simplified-traditional chinese conversion tool
24.7.1.2. uconv - convert data from one encoding to another
24.7.2. 字符串处理命令expr
24.7.3. cat - concatenate files and print on the standard output
24.7.3.1. -s, --squeeze-blank suppress repeated empty output lines
24.7.4. nl - number lines of files
24.7.5. od - dump files in octal and other formats
24.7.5.1. 16进制
24.7.6. tr - translate or delete characters
24.7.7. cut - remove sections from each line of files
24.7.8. printf - format and print data
24.7.9. Free `recode' converts files between various character sets and surfaces.
24.7.10. /dev/urandom 随机字符串
24.7.11. col - filter reverse line feeds from input
24.7.12. apg - generates several random passwords
24.7.13. head/tail
24.7.14. 反转字符串或文件内容
24.8. grep, egrep, fgrep, rgrep - print lines matching a pattern
24.8.1. 删除空行
24.8.2. -v, --invert-match
24.8.3. Output control
24.8.3.1. -o, --only-matching show only the part of a line matching PATTERN
24.8.3.2. 递归操作
24.8.3.3. -c, --count print only a count of matching lines per FILE
24.8.4. Context control
24.8.4.1. -A, --after-context=NUM print NUM lines of trailing context
24.8.4.2. -B, --before-context=NUM print NUM lines of leading context
24.8.4.3. -C, --context=NUM print NUM lines of output context
24.8.4.4. --color
24.8.5. Regexp selection and interpretation
24.8.5.1. .*
24.8.5.2. 2010:(13|14|15|16)
24.8.5.3. []与{}
24.8.5.4. -P, --perl-regexp Perl正则表达式
24.8.6. fgrep
24.8.7. egrep
24.9. sort - sort lines of text files
24.9.1. 对列排序
24.10. uniq
24.11. 表格操作/行列转换
24.11.1. column - columnate lists
24.11.2. paste - merge lines of files
24.12. standard input/output
24.12.1. xargs - build and execute command lines from standard input
24.12.1.1. 格式化
24.12.1.2. standard input
24.12.1.3. -I 替换操作
24.13. Logging
24.13.1. logger - a shell command interface to the syslog(3) system log module
24.14. Password
24.14.1. Shadow password suite configuration.
24.14.2. newusers - update and create new users in batch
24.14.3. chpasswd - update passwords in batch mode
24.15. binutils
24.15.1. strings - print the strings of printable characters in files.
26. Utility Programs
26.1. ed, red - text editor
26.2. vim
26.2.1. 查找与替换
26.2.2. 批处理
26.2.2.1. vi 批处理
26.2.3. line()
26.3. CURL - transfer a URL
26.3.1. 基本用法
26.3.2. data
26.3.3. connect-timeout
26.3.4. max-time
26.3.5. compressed
26.3.6. vhosts
26.3.7. 输出格式定义
26.3.8. -A/--user-agent <agent string>
26.3.9. referer
26.3.10. -v
26.3.11. -o, --output FILE Write output to <file> instead of stdout
26.3.12. -H/--header <line> Custom header to pass to server (H)
26.3.12.1. Last-Modified / If-Modified-Since
26.3.12.2. ETag / If-None-Match
26.3.12.3. Accept-Encoding:gzip,defalte
26.3.12.4. HOST
26.3.12.5. HTTP 认证
26.3.13. curl-config
26.3.14. FAQ
26.4. awk
26.4.1. 处理列
26.4.2. printf
26.4.3. Pattern(字符匹配)
26.4.3.1. Pattern, Pattern
26.4.4. Built-in Variables (NR/NF)
26.4.4.1. NR
26.4.4.2. NF
26.4.4.3. 练习
26.4.5. Built-in Functions
26.4.5.1. length
26.4.6. 过滤相同的行
26.5. sed
26.5.1. 查找与替换
26.5.1.1. 正则
26.5.1.2. delete
26.5.1.3. aaa="bbb" 提取bbb
26.5.1.4. 首字母大写
26.5.2. 编辑文件
26.5.3. 内容打印
26.5.4. 编辑操作
26.6. expect
26.6.1. 模拟登录 telnet 获取Cisco配置
26.6.2. 模拟登录 ssh
26.6.3. SCP
26.7. expect-lite - quick and easy command line automation tool
26.8. sshpass - noninteractive ssh password provider
26.9. Klish - Kommand Line Interface Shell (the fork of clish project)
26.9.1. 安装Klish
26.9.2. 为用户指定clish作为默认Shell
26.9.3. FAQ
26.9.3.1. clish/shell/shell_expat.c:36:19: fatal error: expat.h: No such file or directory
26.10. Limited command Shell (lshell)
26.11. wget - retrieves files from the web
26.11.1. Logging and input file
26.11.1.1. -i, --input-file=FILE download URLs found in local or external FILE.
26.11.2. HTTP options
26.11.2.1. --post-data=STRING use the POST method; send STRING as the data.
26.11.3. Recursive download
26.11.3.1. -r, --recursive specify recursive download.
26.11.3.2. -m, --mirror shortcut for -N -r -l inf --no-remove-listing.
26.11.4. --no-passive-ftp disable the "passive" transfer mode.
26.12. TUI
26.12.1. screen - screen manager with VT100/ANSI terminal emulation
26.12.2. tmux — terminal multiplexer
26.12.3. byobu - wrapper script for seeding a user's byobu configuration and launching a text based window manager (either screen or tmux)
26.12.4. htop - interactive process viewer
26.12.5. elinks
26.12.6. chat
26.13. parallel - build and execute shell command lines from standard input in parallel
27. Shell Terminal
27.1. terminal
27.1.1. resize - set TERMCAP and terminal settings to current xterm window size
27.1.2. tset, reset - terminal initialization
27.1.3. stty - change and print terminal line settings
27.2. tput
27.2.1. Change the prompt color using tput
27.3. dialog
27.3.1. --inputbox
27.4. whiptail - display dialog boxes from shell scripts
27.4.1. --msgbox
27.4.2. --infobox
27.4.3. --yesno
27.4.4. --inputbox
27.4.5. --passwordbox
27.4.6. --textbox
27.4.7. --checklist
27.4.8. --radiolist
27.4.9. --menu
27.4.10. --gauge
I. X Window
28. install x window
28.1. xinput - utility to configure and test X input devices
29. X Setup
29.1. 取消开机启动画面
29.2. Automatic login
29.3. fonts 字体
29.4. disable x window
30. X Terminal
30.1. tsclient - Terminal Server Client supporting XDMCP, VNC and RDP
30.1.1. VNC
30.1.2. xdmcp
30.2. vinagre - a remote desktop viewer for the GNOME Desktop
30.3. rdesktop - A Remote Desktop Protocol client
30.3.1. -g: desktop geometry (WxH)
30.3.2. -f: full-screen mode
30.3.3. -A: enable SeamlessRDP mode
30.3.4. -z: enable rdp compression
30.3.5. -r: enable specified device redirection (this flag can be repeated)
30.4. tigervnc
30.5. TightVNC
31. Unity
31.1. Enable/Disable Auto Hide For Unity 2-D Launcher In Ubuntu 11.10
32. X Window System
32.1. Fluxbox
32.2. LXDE
32.3. Xfce
32.4. Xming X Server for Windows
33. X Application Software
33.1. ubuntu-restricted-extras
33.2. Keyboard Input Methods(输入法)
33.3. 浏览器
33.3.1. Firefox
33.3.2. Chromium Web Browser
33.4. Download Software
33.5. PAC Manager
33.6. LibreOffice
33.7. VYM (View Your Mind)
33.8. greenshot
33.9. Window Switch
33.10. gparted
34. Office
34.1. Calc
34.1.1. 函数
1. 附录
1.1. Linux 下载排名
2. 历史记录

表格清单

22.1. 文件目录表达式
22.2. 字符串表达式
22.3. 组合表达式

范例清单

9.1. 增加交换分区
9.2. GPT Example
9.3. 创建扩展分区
13.1. bonding example
13.2. 命令行建立WiFi链接步骤
22.1. A "Power User" Prompt
22.2. A Prompt the Width of Your Term
22.3. The Elegant Useless Clock Prompt
22.4. Basic conditional example if .. then
22.5. Conditionals with variables
22.6. case
22.7. Functions with parameters sample
22.8. Using select to make simple menus
22.9. Using the command line
22.10. Reading user input with read
22.11. read
22.12. random password
24.1. backup(find + tar)
26.1. example for expect
26.2. example for expect
26.3. example 1
26.4. *.exp
26.5. parallel - build and execute shell command lines from standard input in parallel
27.1. whiptail - yesno
27.2. whiptail - inputbox
27.3. whiptail - passwordbox
27.4. whiptail - passwordbox
27.5. whiptail - example 1
27.6. whiptail - radiolist
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